Millennials Customer Dispositions Influencing Toothpaste Brand Loyalty among in Kenyan Private Universities


Zephania Opati
Paul Gesimba
Lily Njanja


Consumer attitudes play a crucial role in steering behavioral adoption, forming the essence of human behavior. Attitudes toward brand loyalty, particularly for low-involvement products like toothpaste, reveals a diverse spectrum of responses, encompassing both positive and negative findings. Given the disparities across generations, this study delves into whether there has been a shift in millennials' attitudes. This inquiry arises against the backdrop of diminished toothpaste sales due to weakened economic purchasing power in Kenya, evident in extensive promotional efforts by toothpaste brands. The study explores six dispositional factors influencing brand loyalty: brand affect, trust, relevance, satisfaction, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. While prior research has examined these factors individually, this study uniquely views them as dispositional factors projected by consumers onto a brand to influence loyalty. Grounded in the Psychology of Attitudes theory, the study adopts a descriptive research design. It targets 399 millennials in chartered private universities in Kenya, employing a multi-stage sampling method and a self-administered Likert scale questionnaire.  Structural Equation Modeling Regression Analysis are employed to analyze the data. The research concludes that customer dispositions play a pivotal role in shaping brand loyalty, encompassing all six identified factors among millennials in Kenya. Notably, an increase in brand perceived quality reduced brand relevance. Brand managers are encouraged to utilize innovative and compelling emotional messages in their marketing strategies to mitigate perceived risks and maximize benefits, ultimately fostering trust.  They should offer specialized toothpaste tailored to specific needs and enhance the perceived quality of the product. Future research endeavors should explore whether similar findings apply to the Generation Z cohort, particularly concerning non-convenience products.


How to Cite
Opati, Z. ., Gesimba, P. ., & Njanja, L. (2024). Millennials Customer Dispositions Influencing Toothpaste Brand Loyalty among in Kenyan Private Universities. African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research, 1(1), 200–216. Retrieved from