African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr en-US spuresearch@spu.ac.ke (Dr. Chongombe Djongana) pgichiri@spu.ac.ke (Dr. Peter Gichiri) Mon, 20 May 2024 05:55:59 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Beneficence of God with Respect to Environmental Ethics: Tillich’s Divine-Human Creativity Theory as Solution to Climate Crisis https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/254 <p>The world today is in an environmental crisis due to human destructiveness and aggressive <br>behaviour. Health problems in terms of bad medicine are rampant. This is so because human <br>hearts are bent away from the Beneficent God because of sin. Monopoly, greed, and glutton <br>describe the dangerous situation of the world today. Wealth, money and power are <br>automatically reasons for inequality. World economics are destructive and exploitative. <br>Human beings destroy others, destroy themselves; they kill others and kill themselves <br>(suicide). Human beings destroy their environment. Gender inequality is one example of <br>human destructiveness where women are senselessly ostracized, downtrodden and relegated. <br>Because environment is defined in this study as the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic <br>factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological <br>community and ultimately determine its form and survival, climate change is the defining <br>crisis of our time and it is happening even more quickly than we feared. No person in the <br>world is immune from the devastating consequences of the global climate change. Rising <br>temperatures are fueling environmental degradation, natural disasters, whether extremes, <br>food and water insecurity, economic disruptions especially due to COVID-19, conflict, and <br>terrorism. Sea levels are rising, the Arctic is melting, coral reefs are dying, oceans are <br>acidifying, and forests are burning. As the infinite cost of climate change reaches irreversible <br>highs, now is the time for bold multidisciplinary action. The objectives of this study are threefold: i) to address climate crisis calls through an interdisciplinary approach, as a religious <br>contribution is needed as part of panacea. ii)to use theological correlation methods to<br>contribute to the understanding of our world and the existential questions - spirituality asks <br>existential questions, religiosity is the inter-subjective way of elaborating answers to <br>questions about existential meaning, on beliefs in God, the divine, sacred, or Transcendent; <br>religion is the system that offers answers. iii) to examine how the world needs to behave <br>ethically. Environmental philosophy is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral <br>relationship between human beings and nature, as well as the value and moral status of the <br>environment and its non-human contents. This qualitative study uses Tillich’s theological <br>correlation method, and Tillich’s divine human creativity theory in addressing the challenge <br>of environment and climate crisis. ‘The Christ’ is the one who brings the new reality, Jesus <br>(Christology) strikes the necessary balance. “Christ is the end of existence lived in <br>estrangement, conflicts and self-destruction, existential distortion, the ambiguities of life and <br>human’s historical predicament”.</p> Masalakulangwa Mabula, John Michael Kiboi Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/254 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Responsible Mentorship: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice: A Case Study of KALRO-CRI, Kenya: A Literature Review Report https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/256 <p>This paper presents a systematic literature review aimed at facilitating responsible mentoring to <br>bridge the divide between research and practice within KALRO-CRI, Kenya. The study draws on <br>sources from Google Scholar. The systematic review delves into professional development and <br>mentorship across diverse fields, spotlighting the significance of networks and mentoring in aiding <br>transitions. The review suggests enhancements in postgraduate mentorship satisfaction and <br>introduces the TAD Framework, a proposed mechanism to augment compatibility between mentors <br>and mentees. It advocates for formal mentoring initiatives catering to Early Career Academics, <br>highlighting the synergy between scientific pursuits and practical application. Notably, the review <br>underlines the criticality of interpersonal skills for graduate triumph and suggests collaboration <br>between academia and industry to combat graduate unemployment challenges. Emphasizing the <br>imperative of collaboration for building trust and achieving successful outcomes, the review <br>concludes by advocating the establishment of structured mentoring programs and the cultivation of <br>interdependence in professional milieus. Additionally, it explores the significance of interpersonal <br>aptitudes and the seamless integration of fresh graduates into the workforce through academiaindustry collaboration. The study asserts that mentorship should be viewed as an ongoing process <br>rather than a singular event. It advocates for a structured program tailored to workplace dynamics <br>and overseen by mentors, positing that such an approach can effectively narrow the gap between <br>research and practice. The review also underscores the significance of an optimally oriented <br>mentorship period to equip graduates, postgraduates, and working professionals with the tools to <br>function as autonomous practitioners. Notably, mentorship contributes to bolstering the confidence <br>of both mentors and mentees, facilitating an environment where mentor-leadership is revered.</p> Ann Wangui, Gladys Muasya Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/256 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Complex Interplay between Religion, Belief Systems and Climate Change Attitudes: A Systematic Review https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/257 <p>The relationship between religion and individuals' attitudes and actions towards the <br>environment in the face of global climate change is a complex and captivating <br>subject of academic inquiry, with both positive and alarming findings highlighting <br>the intricate interplay between these key variables. This systematic review highlights <br>the lack of precision and clarity in understanding the connection between religion, <br>belief systems, and climate change, leading to inconsistent findings and hindering a <br>comprehensive understanding of this relationship. The research examines how <br>religious beliefs and moral convictions influence attitudes and responses to climate <br>change, offering insights through reviewing and integrating past research. It also <br>analyses the impact of religion and belief systems on attitudes, identifies shaping <br>factors, highlights research gaps, and suggests future exploration. With a sample <br>size of 10 (n = 10), this review provides a structured approach to the research field <br>by analysing and synthesising themes in the literature on religion, belief systems and <br>climate change. Quantitative and qualitative methods were rigorously employed to <br>examine variables, ensuring validity and transparency. Researchers conducted a <br>comprehensive search across multiple scholarly databases, following PRISMA <br>guidelines to include high-quality sources. Despite challenges, scholars maximized <br>selected databases' strengths, maintained strict source criteria, and employed <br>diverse objective research approaches to examine publications, variables, data, <br>interpretations, and research trajectories in the field of religion's impact on climate <br>change attitudes and actions. The findings revealed multiple factors influencing <br>climate change perceptions and highlighted, creating the need for further <br>investigation to address gaps and limitations in the field. The review recommended <br>future research on the link between afterlife beliefs, moral emotions, virtues, and <br>sustainable consumption. It also highlighted the potential research on comparative <br>climate change perspectives across religious groups, the role of religious language <br>in climate communication, and longitudinal studies tracking climate attitude shifts <br>with changing religious beliefs.</p> Benjamin Sarbah, Deborah Duodu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/257 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Towards Sustainable Value Chain among Commercial Maize Farmers in Kenya: Leveraging on Technology https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/258 <p>Maize farming plays a crucial role in Kenya's agricultural sector and the economy at large. <br>However, commercial maize farmers often encounter challenges within the maize value chain<br>that hinder productivity, profitability, and sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the <br>effect of technology adoption on value chain sustainability among commercial maize farmers in <br>Kenya. The paper outlined research findings from external online desk review of studies that <br>have focused on the analysis of the role of ICT functionality in maize value chain and in <br>particular from the perspective of the farmers. Studies were obtained from online sources under <br>the criteria that focused on the agricultural value chain, focusing the ones carried out from the <br>year 2010 to 2023. The findings showed that technology driven solutions improve sustainability <br>in the maize value chain. These technologies enable farmers, suppliers, and consumers to track <br>the movement of maize products, verify their origin and quality, and ensure adherence to <br>sustainability standards. The study findings also showed that the utilization of online <br>marketplaces, mobile applications, and e-commerce platforms provide direct access to buyers, <br>reducing the dependence on intermediaries and enabling farmers to negotiate fair prices. These <br>platforms also facilitate efficient communication, streamlined transactions, and minimized <br>transaction costs, contributing to improved value chain efficiency and profitability. It was <br>concluded that technology adoption in the maize value chain significantly improves value chain <br>sustainability. The utilization of specific technologies leads to reduced post-harvest losses, <br>optimized inventory management, and strengthened farmer-buyer linkages. It was recommended <br>that maize farmers should actively explore and adopt technology-driven solutions to enhance <br>their productivity, profitability and sustainability. The Ministry of Agriculture should prioritize <br>the development and implementation of technology transfer programs tailored to maize farmers.</p> Ezekiel Kiriinya Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/258 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effective Leadership and Good Governance: An Ethics Reflection on Development and Social Transformation in Africa Based on Jürgen Moltmann’s Theology and Alvin Toffler’s Theory for the 21st Century https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/259 <p>Global and local leadership is mechanical, individualistic and more personal. Elections<br>are not longer just, free, fair, and credible. Africa lags far behind in development and <br>social transformation. Perhaps due to lack of dogma, African problems, especially <br>draconian governance and challenges prevail. Africa has imited opportunities for growth <br>and transformation. Africa cries for ethics in managing the expectations of the citizens. <br>African politicians have reduced permanent problems to ignorance, diseases and poverty, <br>leaving out Spiritual lostness and ego-centric leadership. This study focuses on: (i) the <br>place of God to individual and social-economic development, (ii) the place of God to <br>effective leadership, good governance and social transformation. The ills in African <br>politics are rampant because giant problems namely spiritual lostness and ego-centric <br>leadership are not addressed. Bad governance is harmful to the well-being all <br>generations. The objective of this study is to facilitate recognition of God as the centrestage of good governance, good governance, development and social transformation. The <br>methodology used in this study was Jürgen Moltmann’s theology and the theory was <br>Alvin Toffler’s theory of the 21st Century. Africa needs ethics in good governance. <br>Corruption and inequality are addressed via ethics, because ethics means doing the right <br>thing at the right time in the right way matching the system and the actors. For long time <br>Africa sees dealers and not leaders, transformation is possible if we have leader, and <br>unfortunately dealers are interested in power, property, prestige, popularity, and <br>pomposity, but leaders avoid all these. This study concludes that God was, God is, and <br>God has to continually be behind development and social transformation. The cardinal <br>reasons of seeking effective leadership and good governance is social transformation. If<br>God takes a centre stage, African will have meaningful existence in terms of rule of law <br>and justice and inclusivity. The doctrine of God enhances sanctity and dignity of life. <br>UNDP characteristics of good governance system encourage ethical conduct.</p> Masalakulangwa Mabula Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/259 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Tiktok for Consumer Engagement by Select Beverage Companies in Nairobi https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/260 <p>This study explores the utilization of TikTok by select beverage companies in Nairobi <br>for consumer engagement, aiming to identify factors influencing customer engagement <br>on the platform. Drawing on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory, User and <br>Gratification Theory, and Technology Acceptance Model, a mixed-method research <br>design was employed. Qualitative data were gathered from 10 marketing specialists and <br>4329 comments on videos published between December 2022 and April 2023. <br>Quantitative data were obtained from 120 TikTok users who engaged with beverage <br>brands between December 2022 and January 2023.The study included 8 key informants, <br>evenly split between genders, with diverse experience levels in digital marketing. Male <br>participants averaged 8.5 years of experience (range: 7-12 years), while females <br>averaged 15 years (range: 6-24 years). Survey respondents (n=120) showed a diverse <br>demographic profile. Analysis revealed TikTok's technological features significantly <br>influenced customer engagement. Ordinal logistic regression indicated lower ratings of <br>TikTok Technology Factors correlated with lower odds of higher customer engagement. <br>The algorithm, user-friendly interface, geo-tagging, and search functionality were <br>identified as key elements enhancing engagement. TikTok's digital marketing strategy, <br>featuring short-form videos, visual appeal, and interactive challenges, proved highly <br>effective. Short-form videos captured attention, visual appeal enhanced marketing <br>impact, and challenges encouraged user participation. A chi-square test established a <br>significant association between exposure to marketing campaigns and higher <br>engagement. User-generated content on TikTok, creative storytelling, and authenticity <br>emerged as powerful engagement drivers. TikTok's viral potential, creative user <br>community, and influencer culture were deemed advantageous. Age significantly <br>influenced user engagement, with younger demographics being more active on TikTok. <br>This study contributes valuable insights into the effective use of TikTok for consumer <br>engagement by beverage companies in Nairobi. It establishes the significance of <br>technological features, digital marketing strategies, and content dynamics in <br>influencing customer engagement. The findings suggest that brands should tailor their <br>TikTok content based on user demographics, embrace experimentation, and leverage <br>the platform's creative culture for enhanced consumer engagement. This research <br>provides a foundation for future investigations into the effectiveness of other social <br>media platforms in the beverage industry.</p> Joyce Githaiga Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/260 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Social Identity Reading of the Genealogy of Jesus Christ (Luke 3:23-38): Lessons on Inclusivity for the Christian Church in Kenya https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/261 <p>Ethnic identity, viewed as the basis of ones’ belonging or otherwise is one major cause of <br>disunity in both the biblical and contemporary world. The impact of ethnic identity on <br>Christian unity should be viewed as a strong case for the existence of Christians and a key <br>identifier of whose they are. The main objective of this paper is to understand the impact of <br>the ethnic identities in the genealogy of Jesus on unity in the Christian Church, while <br>examining the integrative effects of various ethnic identities in the genealogy of Jesus Christ <br>as recorded in Luke, through the lenses of Social Identity Theory (SIT). Using a library-based<br>study, this paper seeks to demonstrate that Luke employed cultural memory, a view point of <br>SIT to create a new identity among the followers of Jesus through an inclusive agenda that <br>decentralizes ethnicity as presented in Jesus’ genealogy by including some individual<br>characters who do not belong to the Jewish ethnic group. By so doing, Luke presents Jesus <br>prototypically as a superordinate Christian identity for the entire human race. Thus, <br>redefining the concept of ‘ethnic belongingness’ in a very revolutionary sense. While <br>reference is made to the Matthean genealogy in terms of social status, it is important to <br>underscore that the anticipated audience of Matthew which is Jewish, limits its scope and <br>application in so far as this paper is concerned. For this reason, the book of Luke is <br>preferred for this study because of its profound concern with universal social issues of the <br>gospel and its spatial descriptions. The various ethnic identities in the genealogy are diverse, <br>heterogeneous and are at the centre of inter-ethnic animosities world over. Similarly, the<br>genealogy of Jesus comprises of various ethnic groups which share a common ethnic identity <br>in the person of Jesus, but largely disagree on the way that identity should be expressed. <br>While this genealogy spurns centuries of time, providing the lenses through which one can <br>understand shifting priorities and inter-ethnic conflicts, it lays a solid foundation for <br>celebration of unity and a common heritage shared by all members of the body of Christ. The <br>findings of this paper will concretize the foundation for the Christian Church culture that <br>thrives on unity in diversity as demonstrated in the person of Jesus Christ, thus <br>foregrounding the efforts towards ethnic unity in the Christian Church in Kenya.</p> Elijah Makhanu, Julius Kithinji Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/261 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Twitter and Facebook on Public Relations Strategy in Universities: A Case Study of St Paul’s University https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/262 <p>The main aim of this study was to determine how the use of Twitter and Facebook has influenced <br>how universities develop and carry out their Public Relations strategy. A case study was <br>conducted at St Paul’s University in order to acquire the necessary data from sources that had <br>insight into how the university carried out it social media strategy. Public Relations activities <br>such as image and brand positioning, customer relations, employee relations, marketing and <br>advertising on Facebook and Twitter were analyzed in order to ascertain the Public Relations <br>strategy of the university. The Technology Acceptance Model and the Adaptive Structuration <br>Theory, formed the theoretical framework of the study. The study adopted mixed research <br>methods during data extraction in order to acquire information from respondents. A total of 361 <br>respondents from the Department of Communication Studies and the Public Relations <br>Department were targeted with an 80% response rate. The data was acquired from the Public <br>Relations Department using interviews while questionnaires were used to extract data from <br>students and lecturers in the Department of Communication Studies. After data collection, <br>interview data was analyzed thematically while questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS. <br>The study findings revealed that the use of Facebook and Twitter had influenced how the <br>university developed and carried out its Public Relations Strategy. Service delivery by the Public <br>Relations Department had been forced to change in order to keep up with the demands of their <br>publics on social media. It was further revealed that there were both positives and negatives <br>involved in the use of these new media. Based on the findings, the study therefore recommends <br>that Public Relations practitioners and institutions of higher learning would be served best by <br>adopting social media at the corporate level.</p> Michael Bariu, Winnie Ndeta, Shadrach Mwanthi Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/262 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mitigating Mental Health Through The Arts https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/267 <p>Repeated suicide cases at the University of Malawi triggered the motivation for “Suicide <br>Awareness and Prevention Week” which took place during the “Mental Health Month” from <br>the 8th to 14th May 2023. It involved various types of performing and fine arts, a field to glean <br>lessons from to help in mental health mitigation. Suicide, an aftermath of mental health<br>disorders and one of the causes of death globally across ages and people of diverse <br>economic status is on the increase globally. It is ranked the 10th leading cause of death for <br>all ages in the United States. This paper’s problem statement is a response to a call<br>expressing the need for a wide-ranging interdisciplinary response with knowledge of <br>prevention and universal interventions on mental health. The rationale is that everyone <br>engages with performing arts daily, which is proven to assist in various mental health issues; <br>it is imperative to explore on maximization of arts to intervene due to the increase in mental <br>health cases. The study hypothesizes that arts can mitigate mental health. The research <br>question states: How can arts be maximized in reducing mental health cases? <br>This paper analyzes the “Suicide Awareness and Prevention Week” project with Heron’s Six <br>Categories of Intervention highlighting practices worth emulating in managing mental <br>health. This research implies motivating more practitioners to maximize the use of the power <br>of arts in mental health. Some of the key results include reduced mental cases, increased <br>awareness and information on where to get help, increased care for one another and <br>increased motivation to participate in mitigation. The main finding is that arts are powerful <br>tools in mental health mitigation.</p> Peter Ong'are Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/267 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Internal Public Relations Tools Used in Enhancing Employee Relations at Kenya’s National Assembly https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/268 <p>This study was conducted to analyze the role of internal public relations tools on employee <br>relations at the Kenya National Assembly. This study adopted a descriptive survey using a <br>quantitative methods approach which targeted communication and research officers in the <br>National Assembly. The objectives of the study were: To investigate the value of internal <br>employee social networks on employee relations, to determine the benefits of internal employee <br>surveys system on employee relations, to establish the role of internal newsletters on employees <br>and to analyse the benefits of internal employee events on employee relations at the Kenya <br>National Assembly. Questionnaires were used to provide answers to the research questions. The <br>study population comprised 173 participants and a sample of 78 was studied. The study findings <br>indicated that internal employee social networks significantly influence employee relations, <br>internal employee survey systems are important in improving employee relations, internal <br>newsletters are an important tool for maintaining and improving employee relations and internal <br>employee events are important in fostering strong relationships among staff members of the <br>Kenya National Assembly. The study recommends that organizations should explore the various <br>internal networks used for employee relations that are useful in enhancing employee relations <br>initiatives and that organizations should embrace employee surveys as part of their management <br>approach. Further research is needed on the various types of surveys used for employee <br>relations and their influence on internal communication in organizations.</p> Leonard Nyapere, Winnie Otsiulah, Faustin Chongombe Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/268 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Nexus Between Self-Determination of Youth Who are Blind or Deaf and Employment https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/269 <p>Access to employment depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Despite advancements and <br>targeted training in Technical Education and legal provisions to promote the employment of <br>persons with disabilities (PWDs) in Kenya, reports and research indicate an unemployment <br>rate of 80-90% among people of this category. Employers report a lack of visibility of young <br>persons who are blind or deaf in the employment pools. Existing literature dwells a lot on <br>external barriers to employment with little attentiongiven to intrinsic factors of the individual <br>youth. This study sought to examine the nexus between self-determination and employment of<br>youth who were either blind or deaf after undergoing technical training. A cross-sectional <br>survey with 146 participants was carried out, utilizing structured questionnaires. The sample <br>size was determined using the Krejcie and Morgan technique. Descriptive statistics were <br>used to analyse quantitative data, while thematic analysis was used for qualitative data.<br>Statistical analyses, including Chi-square tests and logistic regression models, were applied <br>to examine associations between self-determination and employment. The study reveals that <br>self-determination, expressed as self-advocacy, self-presentation, and self-expression, were <br>statistically significant in the employment of TVET graduate youths who are either blind or <br>deaf. Participants who exhibited higher levels of self-determination were in employment.<br>Self-expression was the most significant intrinsic characteristic. Overall self-determination <br>reflected a significant P-value of 0.002. These results were further confirmed by the selfreporting of employers who indicated that they preferred to meet the graduate youth in <br>person before job engagement. In conclusion, self-determination is an intrinsic competence <br>that has to be nurtured in youth who are either blind or deaf to enhance their employability <br>and ensure that they pass the “fit for work” evaluation during in-person sessions with <br>prospective employers.</p> Lydia Chege, Peter Koome, John Mugo Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/269 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Fishers Networking as Resilience Measure of Small-Scale Fisheries by Women in Homa-Bay County, Kenya https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/270 <p><em>Resilience in nutritional standards and quality livelihood appear prominently among the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. The fishers networking as a resilience factor is essential for ensuring sustainability through continuity, and availability of business needs as a way of ensuring enterprise sustainability. On this dimension, networking remains a resilient measure in addressing forms of enterprise disruptions, thus maintaining functionality and objectives. In networking, fishers create diverse linkages among themselves and all stakeholders along the small-scale fisheries value chain. This investigation aims to explore how building networking among small-scale fishers becomes a resilient measure for small-scale fisheries. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of fishers networking as a resilient measure of small-scale fisheries by women in Homa-Bay County, Kenya. Applying the mixed method approach, the study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data collected from 342 small-scale women fishers. The findings from both data sources were triangulated and became the basis of the study findings. Both Descriptive and inferential analysis were used in the study.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em><em>Fishers networking had a moderate and significant relationship with the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. </em><em>The findings revealed that r=0.591, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.349, F (1,341) =184.93, at P=0.000&lt;0.05, confirming that fishers networking had a statistically significant contribution on the resilience of small-scale fisheries</em><em> the coefficient of determination, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.349, indicating that fishers networking activities explain 34.9% of variations in the resilience of fisheries by women. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>The paper contributes to the literature on the voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries, poverty reduction among small-scale fishers, and nutritional and fisheries policy in developing nations</em><em>. Furthermore, it adds to the literature on networking by highlighting the importance of fishers engaging in a dialogue with one another, the market, policy and community. </em></p> Patrick Okanga, Antony Odek Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/270 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Social and Process Innovations Applicable in Employee Retention:Strategies Concerning Adult Third Culture Kids https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/271 <p><em>This paper examines the effectiveness of process and social innovations implemented within employee retention strategies targeting the identity group of Adult Third Culture Kids. Using an exhaustive literature review method, 37 scientific articles and 7 electronic resources were consulted. The analysis revealed that social innovations such as, but not limited to, creating a sense&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of community and belonging, and process innovations such as providing opportunities for career development as well as flexible working options, have a positive impact on the retention of the working force, especially diverse force and Adult Third Culture Kids. The findings are twofold. First, they suggest that organizations should make additional efforts towards understanding more nuanced characteristics that certain diverse identity groups within the active workforce, such as Adult Third Culture Kids, possess. Second, findings indicate that organizations could improve employee retention by implementing social and process innovations into employee retention strategies that address this demographic group's unique needs and challenges. This study contributes to the literature on employee retention strategies as well as to the literature on Adult Third Culture Kids in business environments thus providing new knowledge to the field and practical recommendations for managers seeking to improve retention rates together with the knowledge on diversity. Additionally, this study offers various options for further research in the field of innovations within cross-cultural management, diversity and inclusion and employee retention</em>.</p> Snezana Ilijevski Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/271 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Millennials Customer Dispositions Influencing Toothpaste Brand Loyalty among in Kenyan Private Universities https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/273 <p><em>Consumer attitudes play a crucial role in steering behavioral adoption, forming the essence of human behavior. Attitudes toward brand loyalty, particularly for low-involvement products like toothpaste, reveals a diverse spectrum of responses, encompassing both positive and negative findings. Given the disparities across generations, this study delves into whether there has been a shift in millennials' attitudes. This inquiry arises against the backdrop of diminished toothpaste sales due to weakened economic purchasing power in Kenya, evident in extensive promotional efforts by toothpaste brands. The study explores six dispositional factors influencing brand loyalty: brand affect, trust, relevance, satisfaction, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. While prior research has examined these factors individually, this study uniquely views them as dispositional factors projected by consumers onto a brand to influence loyalty. Grounded in the Psychology of Attitudes theory, the study adopts a descriptive research design. It targets 399 millennials in chartered private universities in Kenya, employing a multi-stage sampling method and a self-administered Likert scale questionnaire. &nbsp;Structural Equation Modeling Regression Analysis are employed to analyze the data. The research concludes that customer dispositions play a pivotal role in shaping brand loyalty, encompassing all six identified factors among millennials in Kenya. Notably, an increase in brand perceived quality reduced brand relevance. Brand managers are encouraged to utilize innovative and compelling emotional messages in their marketing strategies to mitigate perceived risks and maximize benefits, ultimately fostering trust.&nbsp; They should offer specialized toothpaste tailored to specific needs and enhance the perceived quality of the product. Future research endeavors should explore whether similar findings apply to the Generation Z cohort, particularly concerning non-convenience products.</em></p> Zephania Opati, Paul Gesimba, Lily Njanja Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/273 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical Transformative Leadership and Good Governance in the Digital Economy: A Model Based on Jesus Christ’s Servant Leadership https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/274 <p><em>In today’s rapidly evolving digital economy, the need for ethical transformative leadership and good governance has become paramount. This abstract explores the application of Jesus Christ’s servant leadership as a model for fostering ethical leadership and effective governance in the digital business environment. The digital economy has ushered in unprecedented opportunities and challenges in the Kenyan business environment. On one hand, technological advancements have led to increased connectivity and economic growth. On the other hand, issues related to data privacy, cyber security and ethical concerns have risen to the forefront. In this context, leadership and governance are instrumental in navigating the complexities of the digital age. Jesus Christ’s servant leadership provides a compelling framework for ethical transformative leadership. His teachings emphasized humility, empathy and a commitment to serving others. In the digital economy, leaders who embrace these principles can inspire trust and guide organizations towards ethical practices. By prioritizing the welfare of their teams and stakeholders, servant leaders create an environment conducive to ethical decision-making. Moreover, good governance is essential for ensuring transparency, accountability, and the protection of stakeholders’ interests in the digital economy. Jesus Christ’s governance model, characterized by fairness and a commitment to justice, can be applied to corporate governance. Effective governance structures such as boards of directors can draw inspiration from this model to make sound decisions that benefit both shareholders and society. This abstract also discusses the importance of ethical leadership and governance in addressing pressing digital economy issues. It highlights the significance of fostering a corporate culture that values integrity, inclusivity and sustainability. By following the servant leadership model, businesses can become ethical stewards of the digital realm, promoting responsible innovation and equitable growth. In conclusion, as the digital economy continues to shape our world, ethical transformative leadership and good governance are indispensable. Drawing inspiration from Jesus Christ’s servant leadership, organizations can develop leaders who prioritize the well-being of their teams and stakeholders. By implementing fair and just governance practices, they can ensure accountability and transparency. Ultimately, this approach contributes to a sustainable and ethical digital business environment.</em></p> Tony Gesowan Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/274 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Kenyan Millennials’ Socialization effect on Customer Dispositions and Customer Enablers on Brand Loyalty https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/275 <p><em>As millennials increasingly turn to online platforms for brand purchases, even for low-involvement products, the pivotal role of social media in strengthening brand loyalty becomes evident. While prior research has explored customer dispositions and enabling factors in relation to brand loyalty, the impact of consumer socialization has been largely overlooked. This study investigates the moderating influence of consumer socialization on the connection between customer dispositions, enabling factors, and brand loyalty. Existing studies have established that customer attitudes and enabling factors shape brand loyalty, but there is limited research focusing on the consumer socialization of local millennials. Grounded in generational theory, the research targeted 399 respondents aged between 23 and 43. Employing a multi-stage sampling process, a self-report questionnaire, utilizing a Likert scale, was employed, and data analysis involved Hierarchical Structural Equation Regression Analysis and Hayes PROCESS. Findings reveal that millennials exhibit loyalty to brands that offer lower associated risks, establish positive emotional connections, and cater to their specific needs. Customer dispositions demonstrated significant relationships with brand trust, brand impact, and brand relevance at a significance level of 0.05. Moreover, customer enablers, customer switching costs, and customer commitment showed statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Consumer socialization was found to moderately connect customer attitudes, enablers, and toothpaste brand loyalty among millennials at the 0.05 significance level. Millennials value brands that demonstrate commitment to customers but have high switching costs. Additionally, millennials maintain limited brand-related relationships due to a limited interest in forming personal connections. Brand managers can formulate strategies aimed at cultivating brand affinity, trustworthiness, and relevance, as millennials place great emphasis on commitment and are deterred by high switching expenses. Future research should comprehensively assess the role of social media in shaping millennials' brand loyalty.</em></p> Zephania Opati, Paul Gesimba, Lily Njanja Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/275 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Social Media in Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information by Youth in Mathare Sub-County, Nairobi: A Case of AMREF Programme https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/276 <p><em>Social media has recently emerged as an increasingly powerful health promotion platform that is capable of helping in the dissemination of health information. Despite this, research remains limited on its usefulness and practical applications in SRH interventions. This study explored the </em><em>efficacy of social media in the access to SRH </em><em>information among youth in Mathare area of Nairobi using a case study of Y-ACT programme being implemented by AMREF in Kenya. It was guided by the following objectives: to analyze the general patterns of social media usage, assess the sources of SRH information sought and accessed, determine the types of SRH information accessed, and examine barriers faced in accessing SRH information on social media.The study employed a descriptive survey study design which </em><em>adopted stratified and simple random sampling techniques in the selection of the youth, group leaders and officials from Y-ACT programme.&nbsp; Descriptive statistics was applied to analyse quantitative data. This data was scored by calculating percentages using Microsoft Excel software. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data and presenting emerging thematic patterns. The study revealed that social media is an increasingly popular channel of communication particularly among the youth. Top social media platforms for accessing SRH information in order of popularity were Google, WhatsApp, YouTube, and Facebook. Telegram was least popular. Top sources of SRH information on these platforms were health practitioners, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and peers, with family planning most sought type of SRH information. Prevalent barriers to accessing SRH information on social media were related to shame and embarrassment, privacy concerns and information overload. The study concluded that there are complex ways in which the youth use and access SRH information on social media, implying limitations for simplistic, traditional one-way sexual health messaging. It recommended that SRH promotion on social media be tailor-made to specific platforms depending on popularity, information sources and use and gratification types, while being cognizant of the challenges across respective platforms.</em></p> Kevin Ochieng, Antony Odek, John Kanja Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/276 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Systematic Review of the Impact of Media Censorship on Governance and Development in a Society https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/277 <p><em>The basic role of the media is to inform, entertain and educate society. In some parts of the world, large segments of the population are no longer receiving unbiased news and information. This is because the media has fallen prey to more nuanced efforts to throttle their independence.This paper is a report of a systematic review range of quantitative and qualitative studies to assess the impact of media censorship on governance and development, to create an understanding of the media roles in a modern society.The paper provides an understanding of the different roles of media; media censorship patterns and strategies; who censors media, as well as the impact of media censorship on governance and development. The paper further identifies that media censorship must be understood within the context of nations as each civilization has special political, social, and religious traditions. While there are situations like war, where restricting the flow of information between the government and the people through the media might be warranted, free flow of information in the media is critical for the functioning of every contemporary political system. The paper adds to the understanding that freedom of media cannot be exercised in the complete absence of some level of censorship. With the growing age of internet use where anyone can report, control measures to avoid extreme reactions like anarchy are needed. This paper highlights that there is need for further research to investigate how power, oppression and privilege are products of certain forms of communication throughout society; and that exploration of control of language to perpetuate power imbalances, and the role of mass media in dulling sensitivity to repression is needed.</em></p> Paula Kodia Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/277 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media as a Tool For Political Branding among Select Politicians in Kenya https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/278 <p><em>This study investigated </em><em>social media as a tool for political branding among politicians in Kenya.</em><em> A descriptive survey using a quantitative research methods approach was adopted while targeting social media managers operating social media pages of the Members of Parliament (MPs). Questionnaires were used to collect data. The study used a sample of 87 social media managers. The findings indicated</em><em> that </em><em>the most commonly used social media for political branding was Facebook followed by Twitter. Instagram and TikTok were ineffective for political branding.</em><em> Moreover, the findings indicated that </em><em>for effective social media campaigns, the social media manager should read online conversations, engage with influencers, respond to questions or comments, solicit user-generated content, and create opportunities for users to engage followers. The most essential social media technological factors were graphics and visuals, targeted content, regular updates, and engaging followers. The study recommends that politicians in Kenya should explore different social networks to enhance their branding and visibility. Facebook and Twitter can be highly effective as tools for political branding for Kenyan politicians</em>.</p> Juliet Masinde, Winnie Ndeta, Everlyne Wekesa Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/278 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence Of New Media Technology on Television Content Sourcing in Kenya https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/279 <p><em>Advancements in technology are s</em><em>haping the way things are done in the media at a very high rate.&nbsp; It has led to a pro</em><em>liferation of devices that have greatly changed the processes of content sourcing, producing and disseminating. This paper was born of a pilot study that aimed at </em><em>exploring ways in which the new media technology has influenced television content sourcing in Kenya. The study was informed by The </em><em>Technological Determinist Theory and the Media Determinism Theory. It was </em><em>conducted in Nairobi County, being the centre of technological innovation in Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey design.</em><em> Its target population comprised of television content creators, television program managers and television audiences. Content creators were selected since they interact with new media technologies daily as they source for content. Program managers were selected since they know the implications of the new media technology on television operations while television audiences who comprised of urban youth were selected since they are techno savvy and exposed to new media technologies. </em><em>The study employed the quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Tools for data collection included self-administered questionnaires, </em><em>i</em><em>nterview schedules and focus group discussion guides. </em><em>The findings revealed that </em><em>the most commonly used new media technologies for content sourcing include X, F, You Tube, blogs, Google, Zoom among others. The study also revealed that the new media trends including digitization, convergence and media fragmentation have also made content sourcing easier, cheaper and more efficient. Further, the study revealed that Covid-19 pandemic saw television stations switch to alternative methods of content sourcing. </em><em>Since technology is ever evolving, the findings will help the television industry anticipate challenges posed by technology in order to come up with coping strategies. </em></p> Everlyne Wekesa, Hellen Mberia, Augustus Nyakundi Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/279 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of the Covid-19 Risk Communication and Community Engagement Strategy on Non-State Actors Communication Activities: A Case Study of Shining Hope for Communities (Shofco) Kenya https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/280 <p><em>A Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) strategy plays a pivotal role in addressing perceptions, misinformation, and disinformation surrounding health threats, necessitating continuous communication with communities. This study investigated the impact of RCCE implementation during the COVID-19 pandemic on non-state actors, with a specific focus on Shining Hope for Communities (SHOFCO) as a case study. The primary aim was to assess how the RCCE influenced SHOFCO's communication activities amid the pandemic. Specific objectives included evaluating the effects of the COVID-19 RCCE strategy on SHOFCO's communication initiatives in the Mathare and Kibera satellite clinics, addressing misinformation and Infodemics, managing two-way communication involving feedback, and disseminating communication directives to the served communities. Employing the diffusion of innovation theory and Charles Osgood's communication model, this mixed-method research adopted a case study approach. The population size was 105 with a sample size of 63 individuals selected through purposive sampling. Data collection methods comprised questionnaires and interviews. The study revealed that RCCE strategies guide managing communication aspects during health emergencies, stressing the importance of adhering to directives to combat Infodemics and establish response mechanisms. Recommendations included sharing SHOFCO's findings with the Kenyan Ministry of Health (MoH-Kenya) to inform the restructuring of RCCE initiatives, conducting further research on the Ministry's feedback mechanism, considering diverse populations such as SHOFCO in RCCE drafting and planning, and conducting internal reviews to enhance future health threat responses. The study's outcomes hold significance for the Kenyan government, development partners, and non-state actors regarding effective communication strategies for addressing future health threats.</em></p> Elizabeth Otaye, Elizabeth Quin Awuor Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.journals.spu.ac.ke/index.php/amjr/article/view/280 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000